If you have cited more than one work by a particular author, order them alphabetically by title, and use three hyphens in place of the author’s name for every entry after the first. If no author is given for a particular work, alphabetize by the title of the piece (if the title begins with an article, such as “A,” “An,” or citing an article in an essay “The,” alphabetized by the second word). The Works Cited page, alphabetized by author’s last name, should appear at the end of your essay. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any sources you cite in the essay. Each source you cite in the essay must appear in your Works Cited list.

  • This also helps them understand how your opinions were formed.
  • Although you will need the same information as you would for a printed book, you will not include the page numbers unless they are the same as for an e-book.
  • For citations in prose, use the first name and surname of the author on the first occurrence.
  • For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list.

If the source takes up more than one line, all the lines following the first one must be indented one-half inch from the left. Capitalize the first word in the title, subtitle, and proper nouns. In APA, you may also choose to pinpoint the page from which the information is taken. Use letters to separate works from the same author published in the same year. In 1936, Keynes said, “governments should run deficits when the economy is slow to avoid unemployment” (as cited in Richardson, 2008, p. 257). Find models and suggestions for citing Creative Commons images, video clips, music, or other materials. Page numbers are not required in APA in-text citations.

General Guidelines

Before we get to all the different cases that change the way to cite an article in your essay, we must clarify a couple of things first. This presentation will help you understand when, why, and how to use in-text citations in your APA style paper. A quick guide to the most frequently-used types of APA 7 citations.

When quoting directly from a source, page numbers should be used. If you are quoting indirectly as outlined above, page numbers do not need to be used. Where a page number is not available, paragraph number can be used. If this is not an option, the abbreviations ‘n.p’ or ‘n.

How Often Should I Quote?

There are some general rules MLA citation style uses when dealing with parenthetical citations. The following are basic guidelines for citing sources in the text of your paper when using the MLA, APA, Chicago, ASA, or Turabian style guides. These guidelines may not account for every citation situation.

  • MLA citation style requires that writers cite a source within the text of their essay at the end of the sentence in which the source is used.
  • If you want your reader to read your notes right away, footnotes are more likely to get your reader’s attention.
  • The title should be in the same format as the Reference list entry.
  • You should include page numbers in the parentheses after the year of publication, separated by a colon, with no spaces.

For sources with no author, use the title in place of an author. In Harvard citation, you should cite the volume number for a magazine.

Citing Web Pages In Text

Use a lengthy excerpt without quotation marks but with left indentation . Moreover, note that you will have to place a period before the parentheses. A quote is regarded as long if it takes four or more lines in your essay. The in-text method requires only the page number of the source used in parentheses at the end of the quote.

Pag.’ can be used to show that no page number is available. Author’s Last Name, First Name, Middle Name, or Initial.

How to Cite an Essay in MLA

Sometimes, however, you will need to modify the words or format of the quotation in order to fit in your paper. Whenever you change the original words of your source, you must indicate that you have done so. Otherwise, you would be claiming the original author used words that he or she did not use. You could accidentally change the meaning of the quotation and falsely claim the author said something they did not. Finally, you should always consult your instructor to determine the form of citation appropriate for your paper.

If you rely on someone else’s program, you must credit that person. Some software algorithms are so well known that they rise to the level of Common Knowledge. Programmers use such pieces of code without acknowledgement. But if the code is not well known, someone reading your program might think you’ve authored parts that are borrowed. For a useful example of unauthorized code borrowing, see this page of the Princeton University website.


Research on social networks in higher education institutions usually focuses on one of the two main groups of participants — teachers or students. It involves both stealing someone else’s work and lying about it afterward.

citing an article in an essay

Citations tell readers where a piece of information came from. They take the form of footnotes, endnotes, or parenthetical elements, depending on your style guide. In-text citations are usually placed at the end of a sentence containing the relevant information. If you’re wondering how to write an academic essay with references, look no further. In this article, we’ll discuss how to use in-text citations and references, including how to cite a website, how to cite a book, and how to cite a Tweet, according to various style guides.

When you introduce facts that you have found in a source

In-text references should immediately follow the title, word, or phrase to which they are directly relevant, rather than appearing at the end of long clauses or sentences. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. When citing a single chapter in a larger book, it is important to ensure that you add the page range (pp.) that the chapter spans. When citing an individual chapter, you should also always include the edition of the book in the citation .

  • Otherwise, you would be claiming the original author used words that he or she did not use.
  • In MLA, there is a basic citation that includes the following information.
  • For example, if you want to provide specific numbers of teenagers that text while driving or the incidence of lung cancer among smokers, these require citations.
  • Points your reader to the full citationon your References page for more information.
  • In-text references should always precede punctuation marks.

You can avoid plagiarism and show readers where to find information by using citations and references. Most of the time, you can just identify a source and quote from it, as in the first example above.

How to Cite Sources in an Essay

One study found that “the listener’s familiarity with the topic of discourse greatly facilitates the interpretation of the entire message” (Gass & Varonis, 1984, p. 85). Below are examples of using in-text citation with web pages.

  • Type the name of the publisher after the author’s last name, followed by a comma.
  • “Title of Article.” Name of Newspaper, date of online publication, URL.
  • Fact checkers review articles for factual accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.
  • The title of the chapter is enclosed in double quotation marks and uses title case.

For journal articles with three to 20 authors, follow a similar format as you would with two authors, but separate each author and initials with a comma. Follow this same format for each additional author up to 20 authors. Learning how to write an academic essay with references and how to use in-text citations will allow you to cite authors who have made similar arguments. This helps show that your argument is objective and not entirely based on personal biases. I’m a poetry editor and I find this article resourceful because I use a lot of resources when writing.

Start your Bibliography entry with the name of the author of the essay. Type the last name of the author bridge in writing examples of the essay, followed by a comma. Then, type the author’s first name, followed by a period.