Either we’ll maximize or minimize it based on the given problem statement. For example, it could be maximizing the profit of a company or minimizing the expenses of the company due to its regular functioning. In this tutorial we will be working with gurobipy library, which is a Gurobi Python interface. Gurobi is one of the most powerful and fastest optimization solvers and the company constantly releases new features. In this article we will discuss how to solve linear programming problems with Gurobipy in Python. In conclusion, we note that linear programming problems are still relevant today.

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To improve the efficiency of the simplex algorithm, George Dantzig and W. CPLEX uses the revised simplex algorithm, with a number of improvements. The CPLEX Optimizers are particularly efficient and can solve very large problems rapidly. You can tune some CPLEX Optimizer parameters to change the algorithmic behavior according to your needs.

Output the Objective Function Value and Decision Variables Value

The most profitable solution is to produce 5.0 units of the first product and 45.0 units of the third product per day. SciPy doesn’t allow you to define constraints using the greater-than-or-equal-to sign directly. The third product brings the largest profit per unit, so the factory will produce it the most. This system is equivalent to the original and will have the same solution. The only reason to apply these changes is to overcome the limitations of SciPy related to the problem formulation.


The general notion of the knapsack problem is to fill up a knapsack of certain capacity with items from a given set such that the collection has maximum value with respect to some special attribute of the items. For instance, given a knapsack of certain volume and several items of different weights, the problem can be that of taking the heaviest collection of the items in the knapsack. Based on weights, the knapsack can then be appropriately filled by a collection that is optimal in the context of weight as the special attribute. Let us assume that an entrepreneur is interested in the wine making company and would like to buy its resources. The entrepreneur then needs to find out how much to pay for each unit of each of the resources, the pure-grape wines of 2010 A, B and C. This can be done by solving the dual version of the model that we will discuss next.

pyomo.dae: a modeling and automatic discretization framework for optimization with differential and algebraic equations

Finally, each unit of the fourth product requires three units of B. Due to manpower constraints, the total number of units produced per day can’t exceed fifty. For example, say you take the initial problem above and drop the red and yellow constraints. Dropping constraints out of a problem is called relaxing the problem. In such a case, x and y wouldn’t be bounded on the positive side.

  • A particularly important kind of integer variable is the binary variable.
  • When the solver finishes its job, the wrapper returns the solution status, the decision variable values, the slack variables, the objective function, and so on.
  • Inside it, Python first transforms the problem into standard form.
  • Linear programming deals with the maximization of a linear objective function, subject to linear constraints, where all the decision variables are continuous.
  • Here, I choose Taco and Oatmeal and base the nutrition requirements on protein only.

It’s important in fields like scientific computing, economics, technical sciences, manufacturing, transportation, military, management, energy, and so on. Users can change the algorithm by editing the lpmethod parameter of the model. The dual simplex algorithm implicitly uses the dual to try and find an optimal solution to the primal as early as it can, and regardless of whether the solution is feasible or not. The following diagram illustrates how the simplex algorithm traverses the boundary of the feasible region for the telephone production problem.

Using DOcplex to formulate the mathematical model in Python

# get slack value for painting time constraint, expected value is 0. For any solution, the difference between the left and right hand sides of a constraint is known as the slack value for that constraint. Modify the assembly time constraint by changing its right-hand side by adding overtime.

For example, consider what would happen if you added the constraint x + y ≤ −1. Then at least one of the decision variables would have to be negative. This is in conflict with the given constraints x ≥ 0 and y ≥ 0. Such a system doesn’t have a feasible solution, so it’s called infeasible.

This property has enormous significance because, for many integer-optimization problems that can be modeled as transportation problems, we only need to solve their linear-optimization relaxations. Note that the objective function addresses the minimum total cost for all possible cost combinations involving customers, production plants and product types. The uses of Linear programming in Python can be defined as when an organization implements linear programming it considers two main where the first is minimization and the other is maximization. Minimization concerning linear programming in Python means to minimize the total cost of production whereas Maximization on the other hand means to maximize the company or organization’s profit. Hence, linear programming in Python with its graphical method helps to find the optimum solution.

For example, the telephone production manager may input the previous month’s production figures as a solution to the model and discover that they violate the erroneously entered bounds of 1100. In a profit maximizing problem such as this one, these parallel lines are often called isoprofit lines, because all the points along such a line represent the same profit. In a cost minimization problem, they are known as isocost lines. Since all isoprofit lines have the same slope, you can find all other isoprofit lines by pushing the objective value further out, moving in parallel, until the isoprofit lines no longer intersect the feasible region.

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When faced with an inlinear optimization python model, it’s not always easy to identify the source of the infeasibility. To do this, first draw a line representing the objective by substituting a value for the objective. Comparison operators used in writing linear constraint use Python comparison operators too. Any linear constraint can be rewritten as one or two expressions of the type linear expression is less than or equal to zero. $$ \sum $$where a_i represents constants and x_i represents variables or unknowns.


A linear programming problem is unbounded if its feasible region isn’t bounded and the solution is not finite. This means that at least one of your variables isn’t constrained and can reach to positive or negative infinity, making the objective infinite as well. Mixed-integer linear programming problems are solved with more complex and computationally intensive methods like the branch-and-bound method, which uses linear programming under the hood. Some variants of this method are the branch-and-cut method, which involves the use of cutting planes, and the branch-and-price method.

Currently available optimization solvers are usually equipped with both the simplex method and with interior point methods, and are designed so that users can choose the most appropriate of them. The objective function in linear programming in Python can be defined either to maximize or minimize which is the main aim of the problem. We will also be handling a simpler but similar kind of problem today. The values of the decision variables that minimizes the objective function while satisfying the constraints.

Check the Model

I have started by simply removing the items with the highest weights and the smallest price, but I’m sure this only represents a local optimum and there would be a more optimal strategy. Linear programming in Python works well when you have a problem involving a variety of resource constraints to achieve the best possible solution. When the problem wants to maximize the objective, we need to put a minus sign in front of the parameter vector. # As the problem wants to maximize the objective, we need to put a minus sign in front of parameter vector c.


As can be seen from this small example, exploring the whole solution space can lead to a very large number of computations, as the number of nodes may potentially duplicate from one level to the other. Gurobi uses branch-and-bound in connection to other advanced techniques, such as the cutting plane approach, in order to achieve a very good performance on this process. In other situations, even if Gurobi cannot find the optimal solution, it will find a solution close to the optimum within reasonable time; in many applications, this is enough for practical implementation. While working with linear programming in Python, the basic method for solving is the simplex method, which consists of several variants. I now minimize the costs for all food items and nutrient requirements. I now define the objective function and constraints using the same method as above.

Binding and nonbinding constraints

In this article, we have learned Linear Programming, its assumptions, components, and implementation in the python PuLp library. Of course, this is just the beginning, and there is a lot more that we can do using PuLP in Optimization and Supply Chain. In upcoming articles, we will write more on different optimization problems and its solution using Python.

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A low cost neuromorphic learning engine based on a high ….

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This method is quite simple, but at the same time allows for significant budget savings. Contact Svitla Systems for the necessary advice in the field of datascience and outsourcing of projects in various fields that will be completed reliably and on time. If no other feasible solution to the integer-optimization model from the tree search produces objective value larger than 42, then the incumbent is the optimal solution. First, fully understanding the shadow-price interpretation of the optimal simplex multipliers can prove very useful in understanding the implications of a particular linear-programming model. The importance of duality for computational procedures will become more apparent in later chapters on network-flow problems and large-scale systems.


The manufacturing industry implements linear programming as the principal optimization tool to generate more profit for the organization. A graphical representation of the constraints and objective is shown in the figure below. The contour lines are the objective and the vertices are labeled. Using equations and an objective function is good for small problems because it is a readable optimization problem and is thereby easy to modify. There are at most 5 units of Product 1 and 4 units of Product 2.

Kindly note that you could get the optimization problems in different ways. For example, imagine you have a business strategy and some business practices that when applied might lead to a significant increase in profits. Hence, your job, in this case, is to maximize the profitability of the business by selecting the best strategies out of the available strategies. For a convex function, it is just opposite – line segment lies on or below the graph of the function f.

In this case, you use the x to store all decision variables. This approach is convenient because dictionaries can store the names or indices of decision variables as keys and the corresponding LpVariable objects as values. Lists or tuples of LpVariable instances can be useful as well. Now you have the objective function added and the model defined. Fortunately, the Python ecosystem offers several alternative solutions for linear programming that are very useful for larger problems.

The variables used in the linear-optimization model of the production problem are called primal variables and their solution values directly solve the optimization problem. The linear-optimization model in this setting is called the primal model. Basic understanding of linear programming, objective function, constraints and decision variables. Guess values of the decision variables, which will be refined by the optimization algorithm. This argument is currently used only by the ‘revised simplex’ method, and can only be used if x0 represents a basic feasible solution. Mixed-integer linear programming allows you to overcome many of the limitations of linear programming.

You can check that this point is indeed an extreme point of the feasible region. Next move the line up to find the point where the line last touches the feasible region. Note that all the solutions on one objective line, such as AB, yield the same objective value. Other values of the objective will be found along parallel lines .